Highly Nonplanar Lifting Systems
Ilan Kroo, Stanford University
John McMasters, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
and Stephen C. Smith, NASA Ames Research Center
Presented at: Transportation Beyond 2000:
Technologies Needed for Engineering Design
NASA Langley Research Center
September 26-28, 1995
This paper deals with nonplanar wing concepts -- their advantages and possible application in a variety of aircraft designs. A brief review and assessment of several concepts from winglets to ring wings is followed by a more detailed look at two recent ideas: exploiting nonplanar wakes to reduce induced drag, and applying a "C-Wing" design to a large commercial transport. Results suggest that potential efficiency gains may be significant, while several non-aerodynamic characteristics are particularly interesting.
- Introduction and Background
- Some Results: What is Possible?
- A Closer Look at Two Concepts
- Exploiting Nonplanar Wakes
- A Very Nonplanar Wing: The C-Wing Concept
- Conclusions and Postscript