Publications and Reports

2008

Geoffrey C. Bower, Ilan M. Kroo, Multi-Objective Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Cost and Emissions over Specific Route Networks, 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage AK, Sept. 2008.

K. Fidkowski, I. Kroo, K. Willcox, Multifidelity Optimization Methodology for Incorporating Advanced Technologies into Conceptual Design, AIAA-2008-5848, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, British Columbia, Sep. 10-12, 2008

Nikhil Nigam and Ilan Kroo, Control and Design of Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles for a Persistent Surveillance Task, AIAA-2008-5913, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, British Columbia, Sep. 10-12, 2008

D. Rajnarayan, A. Haas, and I. Kroo, A Multifidelity Gradient-Free Optimization Method and Application to Aerodynamic Design, AIAA-2008-6020, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, British Columbia, Sep. 10-12, 2008

S. Choi; J. J. Alonso; I. M. Kroo; M. Wintzer, Multifidelity Design Optimization of Low-Boom Supersonic Jets, Journal of Aircraft 2008, 0021-8669 vol.45 no.1 (106-118)

Roth, B.D. and Kroo, I.M., Enhanced Collaborative Optimization: A Decomposition-Based Method for Multidisciplinary Design, ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Brooklyn, NY, August 4-6, 2008, DETC 2008-50038.

Roth, B.D. and Kroo, I.M., Enhanced Collaborative Optimization: Application to an Analytic Test Problem and Aircraft Design, 12th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Victoria, BC, September 10-12, 2008, AIAA 2008-5841

Ning, S.A., Kroo, I., Tip Extensions, Winglets, and C-wings: Conceptual Design and Optimization, AIAA-2008-7052, 26th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug. 18-21, 2008

Patel, C., Kroo, I., Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Energy Extraction from Atmospheric Turbulence, 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage AK, Sept. 2008.

Patel, C., Lee, H., Kroo, I., Extracting Energy from Atmospheric Turbulence, XXIX OSTIV Congress, L├╝sse-Berlin, Germany, August 6-13, 2008.

Nikhil Nigam and Ilan Kroo, Persistent Surveillance Using Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles, IEEEAC paper #1318, Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2008.

2007

D. Rajnarayan and I. Kroo, Stanford, and D. Wolpert, NASA Ames Research Center, Probability Collectives for Optimization of Computer Simulations, AIAA-2007-1975, 48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Apr. 23-26, 2007

P. Lissaman, Da Vinci Ventures, Santa Fe, NM; C. Patel, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Neutral Energy Cycles for a Vehicle in Sinusoidal and Turbulent Vertical Gusts, AIAA-2007-863, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 8-11, 2007

2006

Yoshikazu Makino; Ilan M. Kroo, Robust Objective Functions for Sonic-Boom Minimization, Journal of Aircraft 2006, 0021-8669 vol.43 no.5 (1301-1306).

Patel, Chinmay K; Kroo, Ilan, Control Law Design for Improving UAV Performance Using Wind Turbulence, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; Reno, NV; USA; 9-12 Jan. 2006. pp. 1-10.

Wintzer, Mathias; Sturdza, Peter; Kroo, Ilan, Conceptual Design of Conventional and Oblique Wing Configurations for Small Supersonic Aircraft, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; Reno, NV; USA; 9-12 Jan. 2006. pp. 1-17.

Lee, Hak-Tae; Kroo, Ilan M, Two Dimensional Unsteady Aerodynamics of Miniature Trailing Edge Effectors, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; Reno, NV; USA; 9-12 Jan. 2006. pp. 1-17.

Rajnarayan, Dev; Wolpert, David; Kroo, Ilan, Optimization Under Uncertainty Using Probability Collectives, 11th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference. 2006

Allison, James; Roth, Brian; Kokkolaras, Michael; Kroo, Ilan; Papalambros, Panos Y, Aircraft Family Design Using Decomposition-based Methods, 11th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference. 2006

2005

S. Bieniawski, I. Kroo, and D. Wolpert, "Flight Control with Distributed Effectors," AIAA Paper 2005-6074, Presented at the 2005 AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, San Francisco, CA, August 15-18, 2005.

Framework for Aircraft Conceptual Design and Environmental Performance Studies, N. Antoine and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, AIAA Journal, Vol. 43, No. 10, October 2005.

Nonplanar Wing Concepts for Increased Aircraft Efficiency, I. Kroo, VKI lecture series on Innovative Configurations and Advanced Concepts for Future Civil Aircraft, June 6-10, 2005.

Unconventional Configurations for Efficient Supersonic Flight, I. Kroo, VKI lecture series on Innovative Configurations and Advanced Concepts for Future Civil Aircraft, June 6-10, 2005.

Two-Level Multi-Fidelity Design Optimization Studies for Supersonic Jets, Choi, Seongim; Alonso, Juan J; Kim, Sangho; Kroo, Ilan M; Wintzer, Mathias, 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; Reno, NV; USA; 10-13 Ja. 2005. 31 pp. 2005

See publication list related to Collectives work at: http://collectives.stanford.edu

2004

Innovations in Aeronautics – Dryden Lectureship in Research, I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, AIAA-2004-1, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004

Aircraft Optimization for Minimal Environmental Impact, Nicolas E. Antoine; Ilan M. Kroo, AIAA Journal of Aircraft, vol.41 no.4 (790-797), August 2004.

Discrete, Continuous, and Constrained Optimization Using Collectives, S. Bieniawski and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; D. Wolpert, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, AIAA-2004-4580, 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Albany, New York, Aug. 30-1, 2004

Multi-fidelity Design Optimization of Low-boom Supersonic Business Jets, S. Choi, J. Alonso and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; M. Wintzer, Desktop Aeronautics Inc., Palo Alto, CA, AIAA-2004-4371, 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Albany, New York, Aug. 30-1, 2004

A Framework for Aircraft Conceptual Design and Environmental Performance Studies, N. Antoine and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; K. Willcox and G. Barter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, AIAA-2004-4314, 10th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Albany, New York, Aug. 30-1, 2004 

Computational Investigation of Wings with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces, H. Lee and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, AIAA-2004-2693, 2nd AIAA Flow Control Conference, Portland, Oregon, June 28-1, 2004

Computational Investigation of Airfoils with Miniature Trailing Edge Control Surfaces, H. Lee and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, AIAA-2004-1051, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004

Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence, N. Antoine, S. Bieniawski and I. Kroo, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; D. Wolpert, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, AIAA-2004-622, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004

Optimizing Aircraft Design and Fleet Composition for Environmental Compliance, N. Antoine, I. Kroo, International Congress of Aerospace Sciences, ICAS 2004-1.4.3, August 2004.

Aircraft Optimization for Minimal Environmental Impact, Nicolas E. Antoine, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, August 2004.

Collectives and Complex System Design, I. Kroo, VKI Lecture Series on Optimization Methods & Tools for Multicriteria/Multidisciplinary Design, November 15-19, 2004.

Distributed Multidisciplinary Design and Collaborative Optimization, I. Kroo, VKI Lecture Series on Optimization Methods & Tools for Multicriteria/Multidisciplinary Design, November 15-19, 2004.

Aeronautical Applications of Evolutionary Design, I. Kroo, VKI Lecture Series on Optimization Methods & Tools for Multicriteria/Multidisciplinary Design, November 15-19, 2004.

2003

I. Kroo and P. Sturdza, Design-Oriented Aerodynamic Analysis for Supersonic Laminar Flow Wings, AIAA Paper 2003-774, 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit 

S. Bieniawski and I. Kroo, Development and Testing of an Experimental Aeroelastic Model with Micro-Trailing Edge Effectors, AIAA Paper 2003-220, 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit

NATO Course in Novel Aircraft Design Concepts for the 21st Century, Instituto Superior Técnico Centro de Congressos, Lisbon PORTUGAL, October 20-22, 2003.

Kunz, P., Aerodynamics and Design for Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flight, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford CA, June 2003.

Chan, M., Supersonic Aircraft Optimization for Minimizing Drag and Sonic Boom, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford CA, August 2003.

2002

Dan Borglund; Ilan M. Kroo,  Aeroelastic Design Optimization of a Two-Spar Flexible Wind-Tunnel Model, AIAA Journal of Aircraft (0021-8669)  2002 vol.  39, no.  6.

N. Antoine and I. Kroo, Aircraft Optimization for Minimal Environmental Impact, AIAA Paper 2002-5667, 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization.

H. Lee,I. Kroo and S. Bieniawski , Flutter Suppression for High Aspect Ratio Flexible Wings Using Microflaps, AIAA Paper 2002-1717, 43rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference.  

N. Antoine and I. Kroo, Optimizing Aircraft and Operations for Minimum Noise, AIAA Paper 2002-5868, AIAA's Aircraft Technology, Integration, & Operations (ATIO) 2002 Technical Forum.

2000

Kroo, I., Supersonic Civil Transport Design Using Collaborative Optimization, Invited paper, NAL Workshop on Numerical Simulation Technology for The Design of Next Generation Supersonic Civil Transport, Tokyo Japan, Jan. 2000.

Kroo, I., Design and Development of the SWIFT - A Foot-Launched Sailplane, Invited Paper, AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference and Exhibit, 18th, Denver, CO, Aug. 14-17, 2000

Kroo, I., Development of the Mesicopter - A miniature autonomous rotorcraft, Vertical Lift Aircraft Design Conference, San Francisco, CA, Jan. 19-21, 2000, Proceedings (A00-26651 06-05), Alexandria, VA, AHS International, 2000 

Kunz, P., Kroo, I., “Analysis, Design, and Testing of Airfoils for Use at Ultra-Low Reynolds Numbers”, in Fixed, Flapping and Rotary Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Aerial Vehicle Applications, T. Meuller, ed., AIAA, in press. 

Kroo, I., Kunz, P., “Meso-scale Flight and Miniature Rotorcraft Development,” in Fixed, Flapping and Rotary Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Aerial Vehicle Applications, T. Meuller, ed., AIAA, in press.

Kroo, I., Drag Due To Lift: Concepts for Prediction and Reduction, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 33.

Kroo, I., Prinz, F., Eaton, J., Aeroservoelastic Control Using Redundant Microactuators, 14 Oct 1999,  AFRLSR-BL-TR-99-0252.

1999

Kroo, I., “Aerodynamic Concepts For Future Aircraft ,”AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, 30th, Norfolk, VA, June 28-July 1, 1999; AIAA Paper 99-3524 (A99-33628)

Boundary layer calculations for preliminary design of wings in supersonic flow
Sturdza, Peter, Manning, Valerie M., Kroo, Ilan M., Tracy, Richard R. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 17th, Norfolk, VA, June 28-July 1, 1999; p. 47-57 , AIAA Paper 99-3104 (A99-33357)

Multidisciplinary optimization of a natural laminar flow supersonic aircraft
Manning, Valerie M., Kroo, Ilan M., AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 17th, Norfolk, VA, June 28-July 1, 1999; p. 23-32 , AIAA Paper 99-3102 (A99-33355)

A 2D multidisciplinary design method for boundary layer ingesting inlets
Rodriguez, David L. Kroo, Ilan M., AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 37th, Reno, NV, Jan. 11-14, 1999; 13 p. AIAA Paper 99-0838 (A99-16683)

1998

McMasters, J., Kroo, I., “Advanced Configurations for Very Large Transport Airplanes,” AIAA 98-0439, January, 1998.

Kroo, I., Tigner, B.,”Small-Scale UAV’s for Flight Research,” invited paper at MIT Low Speed and Motorless Flight Symposium, April 1998.

Tigner, B., Kroo, I., et al., “Test Techniques for Small-Scale Research Aircraft,” AIAA 98-2726, June 1998.

Wakayama, S., Kroo, I., “The Challenge and Promise of Blended Wing Body Optimization,” AIAA 98-4736, August 1998.

Sobieski, I, Manning, V., Kroo, I., “Response Surface Estimation and Refinement in Collaborative Optimization,” AIAA 98-4753, August 1998.

Holden, M, Tigner, B., Kroo, I., “Aeroelastic Design and Control Gain Scheduling of the Blended Wing Using a Collocation Method,” AIAA 98-4831, August 1998.

Altus, S., Kroo, I., “Concurrent Wing Design and Flight Path Optimization Using Optimizer-Based Decomposition,” AIAA 98-4920, August 1998.

Kroo, I., “Architectures for Large Scale System Optimization,” Invited presentation at Optimal Design and Control Workshop, October 1997.

Kroo, I., Prinz, F, Eaton, J., “UAV Aeroelastic Control Using Redundant Microactuators,” AFOSR Unsteady Aerodynamics and Hypersonics Conference, August 1998.

1997

Kroo, I., Multidisciplinary optimization applications in preliminary design - Status and directions”, Invited Paper, AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference and Exhibit, 38th, and AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Forum, Kissimmee, FL, Apr. 7-10, 1997

Kroo, I., Applied Aerodynamics — A Digital Textbook,  published on CD-ROM by Desktop Aeronautics, Inc.,  August 1997.

Smith, S.C.,  Kroo, I., “Induced Drag Computations on Wings with Accurately-Modeled Wakes” AIAA Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 253-255, March-April 1997.

Braun, R.D., Moore, A.A., Kroo, I., “Collaborative Approach to Launch Vehicle Design,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 478-486, July 1997 

Omukai, Takesi, Kroo, I., “Aerodynamic and structural analysis and optimization for conceptual design of supersonic transports, “ 34th Aircraft Symposium, Tottori, Japan, Oct. 16-18, 1996, Proceedings (A97-26297 06-01), Tokyo, Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 1996, p. 411-414

1996

Altus, S.S., Kroo, I.M., and Gage, P.J., ``A Genetic Algorithm for Scheduling and Decomposition of Multidisciplinary Design Problems,'' Journal of Mechanical Design, 118(4):486-489, December 1996. Postscript version for downloading and abstract in html for viewing on-line.

Holden, M., Kroo, I. "A Collocation Method for Aeroelastic Optimization", 6th AIAA Symposium on MDO, AIAA-96-3980-CP, September 1996. (also available in postscript format)

Braun, R., Gage, P., Kroo, I., and Sobieski, I.: "Implementation and Performance Issues in Collaborative Optimization," AIAA 96-4017, 6th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Bellevue, WA, Sept. 4-6, 1996.

Braun, R.D., Kroo, I.M., and Moore, A.A.: "Use of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture for Launch Vehicle Design," AIAA 96-4018, 6th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Bellevue, WA, Sept. 4-6, 1996.

Holden, M., Kroo, I. "Using Collocation Methods for Aeroelastic Optimization", 3rd Annual Computational Aerosciences Workshop, NASA HPCCP program, August 1996.

Braun, R.D., Collaborative Optimization: An Architecture for Large-Scale Distributed Design, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, June 1996.

Braun, R.D., and Kroo, I.M.,: Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment, In Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art , N. Alexandrov and M. Y. Hussaini, editors, SIAM, 1996.

Kroo, I., "Decomposition and Collaborative Optimization for Large Scale Aerospace Design," in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: State of the Art , N. Alexandrov and M. Y. Hussaini, editors, SIAM, 1996.

Kroo, I., McMasters, J., Smith, S.C., "Highly Nonplanar Lifting Systems," a hypertext version of a paper presented at the Transportation Beyond 2000 workshop at NASA Langley Research Center, Sept. 1995 also published in NASA CP 10184, pg. 331-370, Feb. 1996.

Hovland, P., Altus, S., Kroo, I., and Bischof, C., ``Using Automatic Differentiation with the Quasi-Procedrual Method for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization,'' AIAA-96-0090, 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference, Reno, NV, January 1996. Postscript version for downloading and abstract in html for viewing on-line.

Gallman, J., Kroo, I., "Structural Optimization for Joined Wing Synthesis," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 33, No. 1,pp. 214-223, Jan. 1996.

Sobieski, I.P., Kroo, I.M., "Aircraft Design Using Collaborative Optimization", 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA 96-0715, Reno, NV, Jan. 1996.

1995

Gage, P.; Kroo, I., Sobieski, I.; "A Variable-Complexity Genetic Algorithm for Topological Design" AIAA Journal,Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 2212-2217, Nov. 1995.

Braun, R.D.; and Kroo, I.M.: "Use of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment," Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Hamburg, Germany, July 3-7, 1995.

Gage, P.; Kroo, I., "Representation Issues for Design Topological Optimization by Genetic Methods". 8th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, Melbourne, Australia, June 1995

Braun, R.D.; and Kroo, I.M.: "A Collaborative Approach to Trajectory Optimization," Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Computation and Differential Equations (SciCADE 95), Stanford, CA, Mar. 28-Apr. 1, 1995.

Gage, P.J.; Braun, R.D.; and Kroo, I.M.: Interplanetary Trajectory Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm, The Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 59-76, Jan. - Mar. 1995.

Braun, R.D., Powell, R.W., Lepsch, R.A., Stanley, D.O., and Kroo, I.M.,: Comparison of Two Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch Vehicle Design, Journal of Spacecraft & Rockets, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 404-410, May-June 1995.

1994

Kroo, I.; Altus, S.; Braun, R.; Gage, P.; and Sobieski, I.: " Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design, " AIAA 94-4325, Fifth AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, September 7-9, 1994, Panama City, Florida.

Gage, P.J.; Braun, R.D.; and Kroo, I.M.: "Interplanetary Trajectory Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm," AIAA 94-3773, AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Conference, August 1-3, 1994, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Braun, R.D.; Powell, R.W.; Lepsch; R.A.; Stanley, D.O.; and Kroo, I.M.: "Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch Vehicle Design," AIAA 94-4341, Fifth AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, September 7-9, 1994, Panama City, Florida.

1993

Braun, R.D., Kroo, I.M., and Gage, P.J.: " Post-Optimality Analysis in Aircraft Design, " AIAA 93-3932, AIAA Aircraft, Design, Systems, and Operations Meeting, Monterey, CA, August 11-13, 1993.

Gage, P.; Kroo, I., "A Role for Genetic Algorithms in a Preliminary Design Environment". AIAA 93-3933, AIAA Aircraft Design, Systems and Operations Meeting, Monterey, CA, August 1993.

Earlier Reports

Gage, P.; Kroo, I., "Development of the Quasi-Procedural Method for Use in Aircraft Configuration Optimization". AIAA 92-4693, Fourth AIAA/USAF/NASA/OAI Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Cleveland,OH, September 1992.

Kroo, I., "An Interactive System for Aircraft Design and Optimization", AIAA Paper #92-1190, Feb. 1992.

Kroo,I., and Takai,M., 1988, ``A Quasi-Procedural, Knowledge Based System for Aircraft Synthesis," AIAA/AHS/ASEE Aircraft Design, Systems and Operations Meeting, AIAA-88-6502, Atlanta, GA.

Kroo, I., Design and Analysis of Optimally-Loaded Lifting Systems, an updated version of "A General Approach to Multiple Lifting Surface Analysis and Design," AIAA 84-2507, Oct. 1984.

Multidisciplinary Optimization for Aircraft Preliminary Design

Development of the SWIFT

Oblique Wing Bibliography

A Quasi-Procedural Method for Aircraft Design